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Changes and Countermeasures -- China's equipment manufacturing industry explores the road of innovation and development

electromechanical power; Industrial policy, trade policy, science and technology policy, financial policy; On May 15, under the guidance of the think tank alliance of industry and information technology and hosted by the Information Research Institute of machinery industry, the million village Forum: the 2019 series of activities of the think tank alliance of industry and information technology and the press conference of the think tank of machinery industry were held in Beijing, which was also affected by the stiffness of the whole machine. With the theme of exploring the path of innovation and development for China's equipment manufacturing industry, this conference released the latest research results of the machinery think tank in view of the hot issues of innovation and development of the equipment manufacturing industry. More than 150 Representatives from the Ministry of industry and information technology, China Machinery Industry Federation (the input power supply must be 3 fires), leaders of member units of the industry and information technology think tank alliance, as well as enterprises, universities, research institutes and the media attended the press conference

Li Qi, President of the machinery industry information research institute, pointed out that at present, the world is in a period of transformation in which the game between big countries is intensifying, the international trade order is reshaping, and a new round of industrial revolution is rising when the button on the screw is located in the keyway of the pendulum. The last decade is a critical period to determine the industrial pattern in the next hundred years. Major western developed countries have implemented the Reindustrialization strategy one after another, and continue to increase the promotion of domestic manufacturing development. Especially in the past year, the United States, Germany, Japan, Britain and other manufacturing powers have issued new industrial plans, focusing on advanced manufacturing and other fields, and committed to seizing the window opportunities of industrial change. In October, 2018, the advanced manufacturing technology council of the United States released the report "American leadership strategy for advanced manufacturing", which proposed that the United States strive to ensure global manufacturing leadership; In February 2019, Germany issued the "German industrial strategy 2030", which proposed to increase the proportion of industry in the total economic added value to 25%; All countries are trying to create new global competitive advantages by developing advanced manufacturing industries. At the same time, some countries have also taken various measures in technology, trade, intelligence, finance and other aspects to interfere, restrict and block China's manufacturing industry

since 2018, the new U.S. government has continuously launched a trade war against its major trading partners, and Sino-U.S. trade frictions have been escalating. Tariff barriers, technical blockades, export controls, economic sanctions, intellectual property barriers, military deterrence and political alliance pressure have emerged in an endless series. Under this background, some countries have selectively stood in line for their own security, forming a containment trend against China's manufacturing industry, As a result, China's manufacturing industry is facing unprecedented external pressure in the process of moving towards the middle and high-end of the global value chain

Li Qi pointed out that after 40 years of reform and opening up, China has developed into the largest country in manufacturing industry and goods trade, and China's manufacturing industry has been integrated with the global industrial chain into an organic whole. However, it should also be noted that China's manufacturing industry is still large but not strong. For example, the special production equipment, special production lines and special detection systems for manufacturing major technical equipment and high-end equipment products mainly rely on imports, which seriously restricts the innovative development of China's high-end equipment manufacturing industry. In terms of manufacturing technology, there is still a big gap between China and foreign countries in terms of high speed, high precision, high strength and high stability

in recent years, the trend of China's social economy from real to virtual has not been fundamentally reversed. The industrial added value accounted for 40% in 2010 and 33.9% in 2018. Among them, the proportion of manufacturing industry fell from 32.4% a decade ago to 29.3%, and a large number of resources flowed into the financial and real estate fields. When China's technological development level and labor productivity are far from reaching the level of western developed countries, there is a phenomenon of excessive deindustrialization, which is likely to lead to the danger of industrial hollowing out in the long run, and the driving force of long-term medium and high-speed economic growth will also weaken. At the same time, the development of China's manufacturing industry is also facing major historical opportunities. How to seize opportunities and respond to challenges is the theme of this forum

in view of the above complex situation, we need to strengthen the top-level design in response means, promote the multidimensional development of industrial policy, trade policy, science and technology policy and financial policy, and implement policies accurately. The policy formulation should not only meet the market principles and international practices, but also have the characteristics of China's industrial development

Li Qi pointed out that the period of industrial reform is also an opportunity for the birth of a new industrial model. We study the development history of manufacturing in developed countries. An important sign of a country's manufacturing industry's transformation from big to strong is the emergence of a number of leading enterprises with core technologies. After leading the technology and market, they are more enterprising, able to combine national conditions, integrate culture, and seek change through change, Finally, it produces its own manufacturing mode and even manufacturing philosophy. We can see that the landmark event of the rise of American manufacturing industry is that Ford company created the era of mass production through assembly line innovation in the early 20th century. The real development of Japanese manufacturing industry is that Toyota Motor and others finally formed Toyota Lean production mode with their own characteristics through continuous improvement of American manufacturing mode in the middle of the 20th century

the machine think tank has actively carried out research in recent years. We found that there have been a number of champion enterprises with leading advantages in China's manufacturing industry, such as Huawei, CITIC daika, CRRC, Weichai, XCMG, etc. these enterprises are good at learning from others, are skilled in manufacturing, and are stronger than technology. After decades of development, they are not only leading in scale, but also able to integrate Chinese culture and combine the characteristic advantages of industrial development, Absorb advanced manufacturing technology and form an industrial development model with Chinese characteristics. These enterprises will be the main force of China's manufacturing industry from big to strong, and also the main shapers of the made in China model. They will write made in China on the earth

Lu Xin, a researcher of the machine think tank and the head of the research group, released the development strategy choice of China's equipment manufacturing industry under the background of trade protection and industrial reform. He pointed out that at present, the global economic expectations are lowered, and trade frictions are increasing, which has brought more uncertainty to the global trade pattern. In the face of these new changes, we should not only maintain high attention, but also speed up the path exploration of independent innovation. The report points out that the impact of trade frictions on the global trade pattern mainly includes three aspects: the downward adjustment of global economic expectations; WTO reform, populist rise, multilateral weakening; Trade competition has become the mainstream. The equipment manufacturing industry has become the focus of national industrial planning, and the global industrial layout and supply chain are being reshaped. Trade protectionism and trade frictions between the United States and China may also lead to rising import prices of raw materials and components, passive adjustment of the supply chain in the short term, and partial transfer of the global industrial chain. The report points out that the United States starts with superficial trade problems, but its essence is to curb Chinese enterprises from occupying the commanding heights in the layout of high-tech fields. Chinese enterprises have become the focus of U.S. export control and economic sanctions: first, a large number of enterprises have been included in the U.S. export control list; Second, emerging and basic technologies are the focus of future regulation in the United States; Third, restrict scientific research cooperation and cut off personnel flow channels; The fourth is the combination of control and litigation. These forms require us to maintain a high degree of attention and make rational responses. In the face of Global trade frictions, we should maintain a clear understanding, pay high attention to the trade frictions in China's equipment manufacturing industry and the occurrence of cases in the field of traditional measures, strengthen independent innovation, build an international industrial ecosystem, target economic sanctions against foreign export controls, build a compliance system, build a supply chain security evaluation system that conforms to China's national conditions, and maintain China's national security and economic prosperity

mazihui, a researcher of the machine think tank and the head of the research group, pointed out when releasing the results of the analysis of the characteristics of major national innovation policies that all countries have industrial policies, but in different ways. The report points out that in the process of economic development, especially in the promotion of innovation, the government and the market are coordinated and balanced with each other. At present, the governments of the United States, Germany, Japan and China have actively explored the promotion of innovation. In general, all countries have formulated relevant innovation policies according to their own development status. Although they are intended to promote innovation, they have made full and effective use of the government's ability to guide and regulate the market. The achievement of innovation also mainly depends on this. Four countries have clearly put forward their priority industries for development. The United States pays attention to cutting-edge industries, and the federal government and state governments have given key policy support in the embryonic stage of the industry; Germany has adopted an open innovation policy for start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises, which has greatly stimulated the enthusiasm of innovation subjects in the production process of these varnishes; Japan has promoted the innovative development of its robot industry and automobile industry through imitation and innovation. What needs special attention is that governments of all countries have actively implemented policies from the industrialization of innovative achievements, which has promoted innovative development. For example, set up special funds to focus on support, create a good innovation ecosystem of the combination of industry, University and research, pay attention to the cultivation of innovative talents, and encourage the combination of industry and finance. The report points out that when promoting the innovation achievements of the equipment manufacturing industry, we can learn from the development experience of other countries and give differentiated policy guidance for the innovation achievements in different application fields and different maturities

Si Jiannan, a researcher of the machine think tank and the head of the research group, pointed out when releasing the results of the project on the difficulty of high-end equipment short board that because the fields of "three specialties" (special production equipment, special production line and special detection system for the production and manufacture of major technical equipment and high-end equipment products) are controlled by people, the process skills of "four highs" (high speed, high precision, high strength and high stability) are inferior to people, Five no's (weak independent innovation ability, weak basic support ability, insufficient talent supply, mistrust of user departments, and unreasonable industrial structure) restrict development. At present, China's high-end equipment is facing the dilemma of weakness, and it is urgent to boost the construction of a manufacturing power by giving full play to the advantages of the new national system and establishing a useful and dare to use ecosystem). The report points out that at present, China faces more than 900 special short board equipment, and the import volume in the past five years has reached nearly trillion US dollars. According to the customs data, in 2018, the trade deficit of some of our high-end equipment products was significant, including aircraft, spacecraft, thrusters and other deficits of $25.7 billion; The deficit of physical and chemical analysis instruments and devices such as spectrometer, chromatograph and mass spectrometer reached US $7billion; The deficit of measuring and testing instruments reached US $9.4 billion. Even so, some high-end equipment products involved in the fields of national defense and military industry can't be bought at a high price. The report points out that the United States and other developed countries have long imposed market repression and technological blockade on China. In 2018, the United States passed the export control reform act, which requires strengthening the control of emerging and basic technologies. In November last year, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued an announcement on the regulatory review of some emerging technologies, covering 14 fields such as microprocessor technology, robotics, additive manufacturing, etc. The situation we are facing is very serious. In this context, our three specialized fields mainly rely on imports, which seriously restricts the innovative development of China's high-end equipment manufacturing industry. In terms of manufacturing technology, there is still a big gap between China and foreign countries in terms of four highs. We need to make up lessons in basic technology and improve the core competitiveness of the industry through the research and development of four high-tech products. The report points out that the current high

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